The parts of the human body that are related to Sound Pronunciation are called speech organ or vocal organ. The limitations of the organs of the speech must be acknowledged. Because judging from the biological side, we see that their main functions are two:
- Respiratory functions and
- Food intake.
Despite the goal of meeting biological needs, the performance of the organs of speech has expanded with the evolution of time and civilization. It has been playing an adequate role in phonetic pronunciation. Immediately, it seems that we speak with the help of our mouth and throat. But this is not accurate. To make the sounds, despite the internal organs in the mouth and throat, some other parts are involved. In fact, people make sounds by controlling the amount and speed of the air with the help of various organs associated with the respiratory process.
In order to describe the classification of the sounds of the human language, this content gives an illustrated description of the deeply related paradigms in the respiration process and the pronunciation of the speech sounds. Remember, acoustics or phonology are not physiology. So, our aim is not to analyze the formation of speech-fragments and speech organs at all. We have just presented the role of speech organs in the production of sound with its functions and diagram.
Organs Of Speech And Their Functions With Diagram
So, to get details information about the Organs of Speech and their functions, this article will be helpful. We’ll try to provide an accurate diagram of organ speech. Let’s take a look.
Science says it is impossible to work without the use of force. This energy is equally needed in the creation of sound, And the lungs do it. In fact, the flow of breath is due to the circulation of the lungs.
The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity between the neck and abdomen of our body. Behind the thoracic cavity is the spinal cord; On the front, there are ribs and sternum (chest bones). At the down of the thoracic cavity, there are the Dome’s muscles. It’s called the diaphragm. This diaphragm has separated from the stomach to the bladder. Thus, the structure of thorax has been formed and we call it the thoracic case or chest cage. Respiratory functions resulting from the activity of the thoracic case; And the action of the thoracic case means that the lungs have a form of bellows. The air comes out of the lungs just like a forge of the smithy, and from the outside, it enters the lungs. This arrival and release of air into the lungs is indicated in two ways:
Although respiratory function with the lungs, it is primarily neurological. It controls a particular area of the human brain. The signals first come to the muscles of the thoracic case, then it activates and expands, And the diaphragm goes down. In this way, when the breast is stretched, the air within the lungs decreases and the air enters the lungs.
We compress the chest and lungs by lowering the rib bone and raising the diaphragm. The air inside then exits. But all the air in the lungs can never be exited. In our normal conversation, only one-third of the wind is used (Crystal; 1987:125). But when we talk, act or speak loudly in public meetings, the amount of air accumulated in the lungs increases.
The egressive and ingressive air on the lungs can be characterized into two ways:
- The pulmonic egressive air
- The pulmonic ingressive air
The air that comes out of the lungs is, therefore, the pulmonic egressive air. Most of the speech sound is generated by this action of the air. When the air from the outside enters the lungs, it is called The pulmonic ingressive air.
In this process, it is possible to emit sound entering the air to the lungs. It happens when we talk with laughing or crying. Many people use the word Yes and No.
The process of taking and releasing air through the lungs can be identified in another way. Breathing is called inspiration; And when the air is released, we call it expiration. The process developed by the combination of these two is called the respiratory cycle. The ratio of breathing time to exhalation is usually equal (1:1). But when talking the proportion is no longer preserved. Then the breathing (inspiration) increases rapidly, And the expiration slowly goes down. Statistics show that the rate of inspiration and expiration, if silent or resting, is 12 per minute. Accordingly, it stands 2.5 for every second. But as soon as the talk begins, the breathing time is reduced to one-fourth of a second. The breathing time limit can be increased. The ability to control the voice depends on emotions, etc. The breathing time can be extended from 5 to 10 seconds, or even up to 20 seconds through exercise.
Periodic use of pulmonary outflow and incoming airflow is possible for humans. We notice this when calculating numbers very fast. This situation, however, does not last long. The inward air suddenly became very weak and stiff. It is not good at all to hear such type of sound.
On the right and left side of the bronchus, a tube goes upwards through the throat. As you can see, the tube is made of numerous rings. None of the rings were fully developed; Each ring ends up going halfway, or a little too far. But this system is normal, And the trachea is created by these numerous imperfect rings like the tube.
By formation, the trachea is especially characterized. It is not as hard as bone, not as soft as meat. This organ of the human body is made up of cartilage. The rings of the bronchus are located between the dorsal side of the imperfect part and the esophagus is between the trachea and the vertebra.
The diameter of the trachea can range from 2 to 2.5 centimeters and its length is about 11 centimeters (Heffner; 1952: 14-15). The Trachea is always open. But when there is inflammation in the Trachea or for some reason the air in the Trachea is blocked, a different reaction occurs. In this case, a kind of resonance occurs when the sound is pronounced or uttered.
The upper part of the Trachea, to the fourth, fifth and sixth vertebrae the wide tube which perpendicular this is the part of Larynx. The vocal cords are the most complex part of the speech organs. The air that comes out of the lungs becomes the first obstruction in the sound system. To pronounce the sound the role of the human voice is immense.
About Larynx in Organs of Speech, we can tell,
In the Fauna world, the larynx or vocal cords may be named ‘sound box’ or ‘sound harmonic’. Compared with other animals, the larynx of human being has reached its full potentiality. We are amazed and fascinated by the diversity of human voices.
There are four special cartilage: Cricoid and Thyroid Cartilage, Arytenoid Cartilage and Epiglottis.
Of these, without Arytenoid, the remaining three cartilages play a crucial role in the production of sound:
Cricoid cartilage: The cartilage is somewhat smaller in size and near the base of the esophagus. The cartilage of the esophagus is associated with bone-ligaments and cartilage-joints.
Thyroid Cartilage: This cartilage is very easy to recognize. Men have a high bone in the neck. We call this the Vocal cords. In fact, the Thyroid cartilage is the highest point visible in the Larynx.
Epiglottis: This cartilage is on the back of the tongue.
For some reason, the exclusion of the Larynx from the human body has a very adverse effect on the production of sound. Some of the sounds of the Hausa language in Africa are pronounced from the Larynx (crystal; 1985: 174). Larynx is therefore important in the classification of voice sounds and according to these criteria, the sounds are referred to as Laryngealised and Non-laryngealised sounds.
Made with Tissue behind the soft palate and looks a lot like nodule or tumor. It looks like a piece of meat hangs. If you stand in front of a mirror you can easily notice it. This hanging meat piece is the Uvula. At the time of taking food, the tongue pushes the Uvula slightly down and above the esophagus. The function of Uvula is not only important biologically, but it has a special role in the production of sound (Roach; 1952: 117).
It is something that the human race could probably manage perfectly well, but one of the few useful things it does its act as a place for articulation of a range of consonants in the back of the mouth.
That is to say, the human Uvula is important because it can easily be used as an accent, and in human language, there are many sounds that have been specifically assigned to the site for pronunciation. According to acoustics, the acoustics are pronounced in some Caucasian languages and in some Arabic and Hebrew dialects with the help of Uvula (Trask; 1996: 133).
The glottis is triangular to look at, much like the two reverse Ʌ alphabet in English. There are two tissues in the glottis. These two tissues are called together as vocal cords. One of the types of mucous membranes in vocal cords is Vocal Ligaments and Vocal Muscle. From the Frontal side, it is Thyroid Cartilage; And from the back, it is attached to the cartilage of the Arytenoid. The rotation of the arytenoid is closed or opened, and in this process, it produces different types of Phonation.
There are morphological (size) variations of vocal cords between ages or women and men. The vocal cords of Children and Women are smaller than men. As a result, their voices are smooth and shallow.
If we are silent or not speaking, the vocal cords are at rest and stretched out. As a result, the air easily enters and exits from the lungs. But when it comes to food intake, the form, and function of the changes of the vocal cords. The vocal cords become strong and interconnected. As a result, food cannot enter the lungs. The role of vocal cords in the production of sound is important and can be explained in two ways:
- If the airflow in the vocal cords are fast, the Voicing Phonation occurs;
- The height of the low tone and pitch depends on the resonance of the vocal cords.
In fact, when comparing the sound of the larynx and pharynx, the predominance of the vocal cords in human language can be noted.
The vocal cords are covered with a kind of cartilage. The cover of cartilage is the Epiglottis. Its main function is to prevent the entry of food into the Larynx and trachea tract while taking food. But even in limited form, the Epiglottis plays a role in the production of sound.
According to stats, some sounds of Caucasian languages are produced from it (Trask; 1996: 132). These types of sounds are called epiglottal sounds. Thus, the sounds are indicated in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) [h, q].
Extending from the base of the skull to the diaphragm, and about 13 cm long, the tube-like part is the pharynx (MMD; 1993: 871). The back of the mouth- oral cavity, the nasal cavity, and the vocal cavity are very important as the Pharynx.
The biological functions of the Pharynx are mainly two:
- Delivering food from the mouth to the esophagus;
- Move the air from the nasal cavity to the Larynx.
The Pharynx is divided into three parts:
Ortho-pharynx: The part of the mouth that touches the Pharynx from the back of the mouth is Ortho-pharynx.
Naso-pharynx: Naso-pharynx is the pores that connect the oral cavity and pharynx. The pore has a soft palate on top and the bottom has the end of the tongue. On the two ends of the connector, there are two arcs, the arc of the palate and tongue, and the arcs of the palate and throat. There are sinus and palate tonsils in the sloping or lower part of the archway. It is noteworthy that there are six tonsils in the human body. Two of its are from the palate, one of the tongue, one of the pharynx and the remaining two of the tubes; And the lymph-epithelium cycle is formed in combination with the sixth tonsil.
Laryngo: This part is connected to the trachea. By changing the shape of the pharynx, we pronounce different types of sounds. With the wind being blocked in the pharynx or throat, consonants of many languages, including Arabic, are pronounced (Crystal; 1987: 155).
Tongue is located in the lower part of the mouth. The tongue is the most active organ in the Organs Of Speech. There are many languages on earth that use the tongue as a synonym for language. Latin Lingua, Greek glossa meaning language. It is also noticeable in English. We say ‘mother tongue‘, the English use it in the sense of native language.
The tongue is made up of three specialized muscles that come from the bone: Hyoglossus, Genioglossus, and Styloglossus. For these muscles, the tongue is elastic and flexible. As a result, we can rotate, rotate, and twist the tongue at the front, back, top, bottom and horizontally. There are numerous Papillae on the membranes of the tongue. By classifying its, physiologists have indicated four types:
- Papillae like a yarn
- Papillae like a frog’s umbrella
- Papillae like a wrap around and high heels
- Papillae like leaves
Of these Papillaes, Papillae like a Year are very touchy. With the remaining three types of Papillaes, we take a taste. Also for Papillaes, the food is easily swallowed by the tongue when taking. In the normal position, at the time of rest, the tongue stays at convex. The entire tongue has been divided into two parts by the V-shaped sulcus terminalis. One of its is Anterior Part and the other is Posterior Part. According to the role and function of the tongue in the production of sound, different parts of the tongue can be represented as follows:
- Front Tongue: The part of the tongue is located opposite of the hard palate.
- Back Tongue: Tongue located opposite the soft palate.
- Middle tongue: The part of the tongue located opposite the soft and hard palate. The front, back, and middle of the tongue, say this triangle together, the front of the tongue.
- Tongue blade: The part of the tongue that is attached to the tooth root or gum, ie the marginal part of the tongue.
- Tongue (apex/tip): The front part of the tongue.
- Tongue rims: the round end part of the tongue.
The palate is called the roof of the mouth. The palate is mainly divided into two parts.
Hard palate: The front part of the mouth, from the beginning of the tooth root to the back to the soft palate. The hard palate is dome-shaped and made of a thin covering of bones. We can feel the hard palate by touching the tongue.
Soft palate: The structure of the soft palate is different from the hard palate. The soft palate is made with a soft tissue-type. As a result, it can be lifted up and down.
In normal respiratory and nasal consonant sounds, the soft palate is slightly down. But with the pronunciation of other sounds, it goes up.
The tooth root is in our jaw bone. There is a deep tooth in the base of the tooth root. Each tooth is divided into three parts:
Tooth-crown: The part of the teeth in the mouth cavity. We understand this part of the tooth as teeth.
Dental ridge: We do not see this part of the tooth. This part rests deep in the bones of the scalp.
Denticle: The middle part of the crown and neck. This part is covered with tooth-root.
The teeth are quite tight. Because it is made of three special ingredients: Dentin, Enamel, and Cement. Of these, dentin is the main one. Most of the parts of the teeth are made up of this material. Apparently Dentin seems like a bone. But it is stronger than bone. In the remaining two, the enamel serves as the cover of the dental crown; On the other hand, the cement stays at the root and neck of the teeth.
Tooth refers to all teeth. But looking a little deeper, it can be seen that not all teeth are the same. There is a wide variety in the dental kingdom. The dentist has accordingly pointed out four categories of teeth. In this case, they have given priority to the work of the teeth. Their assigned categories are as follows:
Incisor: This part of the teeth acts as like Incisor.
Canine: These teeth are elongated and angular.
Premolar: Molar means Chewing. In that case, the premolar teeth refer to the Chewing teeth as before. There are two mounds on the chewing teeth.
Molar: The next tooth of the Premolar. There is also a mound-like the Premolar. Incisor and canine parts of teeth that break down or bites the food make the molar more refined. As a result, it can be easily swallowed.
An adult man has thirty teeth, irrespective of men or women. Each half of the upper and lower limbs has five teeth and three molar teeth. They have two incisors, one canine, and two premolars. The third molar of the teeth is called the Wisdom Teeth. Many people have no or do not rise wisdom teeth. Dental specialists use the following formulas to indicate the position of the tooth.
126.96.36.199 That is
The upper and lower parts of the teeth are on each half:
Incisor = 2
Canine = 1
Premolar = 2
Molar = 3
Total = 8 x 2 = 16 x 2 = 32.
In sound pronunciation the role of upper gum teeth is important. Many consonant sounds are also pronounced using the front side of the tongue and touching the upper side teeth.
By lips, we mean the two covering of the fleshy around the oral cavity. From the outside, the lips seem a thick cover like the skin. But its interior part is made up of mucous membranes. In addition, there are lipids and nerves in the lips and numerous micro-labial salivary glands that are needed to remove the saliva in the mouth.
Lip refers to both upper and lower lips. however, the scientist gave two distinct names of the two lips. They call the upper lip “Labium superius oris” and the lower lip is called “Labium inferius oris”. But we understand lips as both of the ‘lips’.
Lip has a special role in creating sound. The nature of the vowel sound is determined by distinguishing the difference between the two lips. In terms of pronunciation, in consonant sound judgments, the importance of lips is immense.
The upper jaw (maxillary) and lower (mandible) jaws combinedly known as jaws. We call these parts of the organs separately Jaws— the upper jaw and the lower jaw. The upper jaw teeth are attached to the upper jaw and the lower jaw teeth are attached to the lower jaw. The beauty of the face depends largely on the structure of the jaw. The upper jaw is inactive, but the lower jaw is active; We can perform it front, back, right and left.
No sound is uttered directly from the jaw. But without the movement of the jaw, the pronunciation of the voice, vowel, and consonant are not possible. There are compelling reasons why the jaw must be regarded as a paradox. The importance of sound production can be realized in the case of jaw dislocation (ie, jaw dislocation, jaw cleft, crack or jaw breakdown or dislocation). In this case, no sound can be uttered.
Classification Of Speech Organs
According to the structure and functionalities mentioned above, the organs of speech can be divided as follows.
Respiratory Organs Of Speech: This section has two limbs, the lungs, and the trachea.
Laryngeal Organs of Speech: In this section, there are two related considerations, the larynx, and the vocal cords.
Supra-laryngeal Speech Organs: The inner parts of the mouth falls in this category: tongue, lips and lower jaw.
Relatively Fixed structured Speech Organs: This phase refers to the internal organs that participate in the production of sound from their own position. They are the teeth, the hard palate, the pharyngealized, especially the pharynx and the nasal cavity.
But this division is limited. Because it did not include many organs of speech.
Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopedia Of Language. New York: Cambridge University Press.
— 1992. An Encyclopedic Dictionary Of Language and Linguistics. New York: Penguin Books
Heffner, R.M.S. 1952. General Phonetics. Madison: The University Of Wisconsin Press
MMD Mosby’s Medical Dictionary. 1993. New Delhi: Galgotia Publication (P) Ltd.
Roach, Peter. 1992. Introducing Phonetics. London: Penguin Books
TCMD Taber’s Encyclopedic Medical Dictionary, New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers
Trask, R.L. 1996. A Dictionary Of Phonetics And Phonology. Londo: Routledge