Word formation is the process of producing or forming new words. Many word formation rules and processes are followed all over the world. The major rules are cited below.
Word Formation Rules Or Process
I have discussed the most used 16 Word Formation rules with necessary examples. Those who are enthusiastic will be helpful to learn a language.
It is the word-formation process in which a derivational affix is attached to the root word to create a new word. The parts of speech of the root word may or may not be changed after the derivation process. For example:
Class – Changing derivations:
It is the word-formation rules in which an actual affix or a supposed affix is detached from the root-word and the parts of speech or grammatical category of the original word are changed after the back-formation.
Blending is the word-formation theory in which the parts of two or more are combined to create a new word. Here the part of speech of the original words and the new word is the same. For example:
|Original Words||Blended Words|
|Advertisement + Entertainment|
Motor + Hotel
Smoke + Fog
Breakfast + Lunch
Spanish + English
When a word or phrase is shortened but the shortened form is used only as a written convention, not in speech it is called abbreviation. For example:
Conversion is the word-formation process in which a word of one grammatical form becomes a word of another grammatical form without any change in spelling or pronunciation. For example:
|Word||Grammatical Form||Conversed Form|
|Please send me an email containing your biodata.|
|Please email your biodata.|
|Experience||Write down an essay about your experience of a rainy day.|
|I experienced a very horrible situation in the slum-swellings of our country.|
|Sleep||I slept a sound sleep last night.|
|You have to sleep well before an examination.|
|Water||Please give me a glass of water.|
|Water the garden as soon as possible.|
Compounding is the word-formation rules in which two or more words (usually of the same parts of speech) are combined into a single new word. The Grammatical category remains unchanged. For example:
|Note + book||Notebook|
|Blue + berry||Blueberry|
|High + light||Highlight|
|In + to||Into|
Clipping is the word-formation regulation in which a word is reduced without changing its meaning or grammatical category. For example:
|Original WOrd||Clipped Word|
Clippings are of 4 types:
Clipping from the end of the word.
Clipping from the front part of the word.
Such as —
Clipping from the middle of the word.
Multiple parts from multiple words are clipped.
Acronyms are shortened forms of some phrases or words but the difference is that the abbreviated words pronounced as the complete word. For example, we write ‘Apr’ but speak it as ‘April’. But acronyms are both written and spoken use of language. Such as —
|Human Immunodeficiency Virus||HIV|
|National Aeronautics and Space Administration||NASA|
|Very Important Person||VIP|
|Master Of Science||MSc|
It is a word-formation law in which a new word is formed from the name of a fictitious person or thing. These words are called eponyms. For example:
|Joseph Banks||From Alaska to Indonesia and in many other places all over the world, there are capes, islands, mountains, bays, counties, towns, etc named after Joseph Banks.|
|Atlas||Generally, Atlas means a book of maps, but the name is attributed to a mythological character who was punished by Zeus to hold on the pillars of heaven for the rest of his life and as he was immortal he became weak to hold the on the pillars. When he willingly looked at the eyes of medusa he turned to stone. The first cartographer G. Mercator drew his figure on the cover page of his book of maps. Since then it became the name for a book of maps.|
|Adam’s Apple||From the name of the character Adam.|
|Doppler Effect||From the name of Christina Doppler.|
When a completely new word is created without forming it from another word it is called coinage. For example:
When a word is borrowed from another language this process is called borrowing. For example:
|Borrowed English Word||Original Language|
When a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another it is called Calquing. For example:
|English Word||Original Word|
|Blueblood||Spanish wood ‘Sangree-azul’|
|Commonplace||Latin phrase ‘locus communis’|
|Free verse||French phrase ‘vers libre’|
|Pineapple||Dutch word ‘pijnappel’|
Reduplication refers to the process of word-formation which makes repetition of all or part of a root word to form a new word. For example:
To imitate sounds:
- rat-a-rat (Knocking on door)
- tick-tack (sound of a clock)
To suggest alternating movements:
To suggest insincerity:
Symbolism, as a word-formation process, refers to the act of alternating the internal phonemic structure of a morpheme to change its grammatical category or function.
|Goose /gu:d3/||Geese /gi:d3/|
|Tooth /tu:θ/||teeth /ti:θ/|
|Man /mæn/||men /men/|
|synthesis /si:nesis/||syntheses /si:nθeses/|
It refers to the word-formation formula where the form of a word is completely changed or replaced by another morphologically unrelated root. For example:
16) Nonce Words
A nonce word is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication. The nonce words are created ‘for the nonce’. Some nonce words are meaningful and become an established part of the language. These words are generally meaningless and are useful for a particular reason or occasion. For example:
- Cotton-wool (to be close with cotton-wool)
- Touch-me-not-ishness (having a snobbish behavior)
So, when you want to know the Word Formation principle Or Process, you can easily check the above point which explained with appropriate examples and descriptions. If you have any suggestions about Word Formation, put a comment. Thanks.